Skillnad mellan V-5 och V-12 Navy-program under andra världskriget

Skillnad mellan V-5 och V-12 Navy-program under andra världskriget


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Jag var nyfiken på om det var skillnad mellan V-5 och V-12 Navy-programmen under andra världskriget. Jag har hittat mycket information om V-12-programmet specifikt men jag har inte kunnat hitta så mycket information om V-5 marinutbildningsprogrammet. Var V-5 en delmängd av V-12-programmet? Jag vet att Purdue, Notre Dame och många andra skolor hade V-12-program men har inte hört något om V-5. All insikt skulle vara till stor hjälp!

EDIT: Äntligen hittade jag något:

Navy V-12, Volume 12 Av Henry C. Herge

Det ser ut som om V-5-programmet var för marinflygkadetter som senare togs bort i V12-programmet och dessa studenter fick en särskild beteckning på (a) för luftfart.


Medan jag gick på gymnasiet i Oklahoma i mars 1943 värvade jag mig till marinen i Navy V-5-programmet. Jag kallades till aktiv tjänst den 1 juli 1943. Jag skickades till Central Missouri State Teacher's College i Warrensburg, Missouri. Min beteckning ändrades från V-5 till V12A. Jag antar att "A" kan ha inneburit luftfart. En termin varade i 4 månader. Jag var planerad att gå 2 terminer och sedan förflyttas till en marinskola före flygning. Under min andra termin fick flera av oss ett test och möjlighet att gå i skolan före flygning eller till ett större universitet för NROTC. Det fanns andra studenter på Warrensburg som hade beteckningen V-12. De skulle gå 4 terminer och sedan gå på en marin midshipman skola i 4 månader och sedan få i uppdrag som fänrik i flottan. Min grupp på 12 stod upp alfabetiskt på en bänk och kallades in en efter en. De första 11 fick order till NROTC vid UCLA. Jag var den sista som ringde in och fick veta att det bara fanns 11 kvoter för UCLA och att jag skulle gå till Notre Dame NROTC. Jag var på Notre Dame (fortfarande med en V-12-beteckning) i 5 terminer om 4 månader vardera. Vi tog 18-20 timmar per termin och tog examen efter 28 månader (8 i V-12 plus 20 i NROTC). Jag var en fänrik och en högskoleexamen vid 20 års ålder. Jag stannade i flottan (mestadels ubåtstjänst) tills jag gick i pension 1970 som kapten. Hoppas detta hjälper dig att förstå programmen. Kapten Robert Thomas U. S. Navy (pensionerad)


Jag anmälde mig till USN V-5-programmet i maj 1945, två månader före VJ-dagen. Jag gick Minot, ND State Teachers College i en termin och överfördes sedan till Iowa State College i Ames, Iowa för en fjärdedel, sedan till Lawrence, KS i en termin när vi fick veta att hitta en skola på egen hand för att slutföra förberedelsen -flight college krav. Eftersom mina föräldrar då bodde på campus vid UND (University of North Dakota) slutförde jag mina krav före flygningen där och väntade på utbildning före flygningen i Ottumwa, Iowa. Vid den här tiden gick jag förmedicinkurser och planerade en medicinsk skolutbildning. "Med tanke på att jag kunde välja bort V-5-programmet gjorde jag och avslutade mina pre-med-kurser på UND som civilist. Efter examen gick jag på Boston University School of Medicine, tog examen och internerade nästa dörr på Boston City Hospital för en år flyttade sedan till Chicago till ett residens inom psykiatri vid Michael a Reese Medical Center. I Chicago beslutade mitt utkast till styrelse i Massachusetts att min V-5-tid var "inte avtiv tjänst" och ändrade min klassificering till IA. Illinois Medical Board, dock , bestämde att min V-5-utbildning var "aktiv tjänst" och omklassificerade mig tillbaka dit jag hade varit. Det kanske inte var "rättvist" (jag höll med förslaget till styrelse om det, men lagen är lagen och jag ville avsluta min psykiatriska utbildning utan avbrott. Jag har känt ett visst ansvar gentemot militären sedan dess och gick med i USA Medical Corps Reserve -programmet och spenderade två veckor årligen på en Army Meical -anläggning på Hawaii, vilket jag gjorde tills jag blev pensionär.


Jag kom in på V12 -programmet i Central Missouri State i Warrensburg i juni 1945. Programmet avbröts där efter en termin på fyra månader. Enheten skickades sedan till Brown University i Providence, RI. Innan terminen slutade på Brown, på grund av Japans kapitulation den 2 september, fick några som deltog i programmet hoppa av och överföra till marinreservatet. Vi skickades sedan till Great Lakes i ungefär en månads startläger. Basen där minskade också snabbt. Allt militärt stoppades. Att bo i V12 krävde obligatoriska 4 års aktiv tjänst efter avslutad högskola.


Jag värvade mig i flottan i augusti 1945 och i väntan på order om att starta lägret fick jag ett brev från Office of Naval Officer Procurement i Los Angeles om att resultaten av mitt allmänna klassificeringstest indikerade att jag kanske skulle kunna kvalificera mig för V -12 eller V-5 officer kandidatprogram. V-12-programmet ledde till en kommission som ordinarie linjeansvarig och V-5 till en kommission inom luftfartsgrenen. Jag valde det senare och efter testning skickades jag från Long Beach, CA till Colgate Univ i NY. Efter ett års deltagande i uniform som lärling sjöman (AS-V5) stängdes marinen på campusenheterna i USA och vi fick besked om att få antagning till ett annat universitet för vårt andra år som civila och betalt av flottan . Under sommaren 1946 ändrades V-5-programmet till Holloway-planen med 2 års college, utnämning till midshipman, 2 års flygutbildning, uppdrag i den vanliga flottan och ett år i flottan och ytterligare 2 års college som en Lieut JG om den behålls eller som civil om inte. Det slutade med att jag flög kämpar från transportörer 1949 och 1950 och jag återvände till skolan när mitt år var slut. Google "Flying Midshipmen" eller en bok med titeln "Once a Jock ..." för mer information. Ett av mina äventyr finns på sid. 62 i boken.


Jag hittade en gammal Chicago Tribune -tidning från 1942 där de intervjuade min far som valedictorian på hans gymnasium. Det står att han avsåg att värva sig i "NY MARIN V5 PROGRAM "som tillhandahåller flygträning för gymnasieexamen


United States Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School

De United States Navy Reserve Midshipmen's School var ett påskyndat hjälpprogram för sjöofficers som inrättades i juni 1940. [1] Dess mål var att utbilda en planerad 36 000 marinreservatofficerare för kommandon i den kraftigt expanderande amerikanska flottans flotta som byggs upp för att förbereda USA: s inträde i Andra världskriget.

United States Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School
Aktiva1940 - 1945
LandFörenta staterna
GrenUnited States Naval Reserve
TypTräning
RollEfterskolekurs för utbildning av U.S.Officer juniorofficer

För att uppnå detta etablerades flera nya Naval Reserve Midshipmen's Schools huvudsakligen på college campus runt om i landet. Mellan 1940 och 1945 genomförde deras juniorofficerkandidater, många alumner från marinens V-12-utbildning, en 30-dagars indoktrineringskurs innan de gick in på midshipman-skolans 90-dagars V-7 Navy College utbildningsprogram. [2] Efter framgångsrik avslutning togs examinerade i uppdrag som fänriker i U.S.Naval Reserve. Majoriteten gick i aktiv tjänst med den amerikanska flottan [3] i Pacific Theatre under kriget. [4]


Veteraner och Militär Tjänster

Ursprungligen chartrad 1801 som South Carolina College, har det moderna University of South Carolina i dag en lång historia av militär tradition och tjänst.

Veteraner omvandlar universitet och studentpopulation

South Carolina som institution har förvandlats av veteranstudenter. År 1944, mot slutet av andra världskriget, inkluderade studentgruppen 21 veteraner. Mellan våren 1945 och hösten 1947 ballonerade inskrivningen från 1 420 studenter till 4 614 - en ökning med 225 procent på bara 2 och ett halvt år. År 1947 var 66 procent av studenterna tidigare militärer - inklusive 44 kvinnor.

Universitetet registrerade fler veteraner från andra världskriget än någon annan högskola i South Carolina. Servicemenns omjusteringslag från 1944 - även kallad GI Bill of Rights eller GI Bill - gjorde college tillgängligt för många fler sydkarolinier.

Milstolpar i militärhistoria

1860: South Carolina College stänger under inbördeskriget.

1862: A ll studenter på högskolan volontär för tjänst den 8 mars, och c onfederate myndigheter ta besittning av högskolebyggnader och omvandla dem till ett sjukhus.

1865: Unionens armé tar över kollegiet den 24 maj.

1866: Högskolan öppnar igen som universitet.

1914-18: Under första världskriget deltog majoriteten av studenterna i universitetets ROTC -program, som senare blev Student Army Training Corps. Efter kriget upplöstes kåren och senare ROTC -programmet.

1935: World War Memorial Building är tillägnad soldaterna i South Carolina som tjänstgjorde och dog under första världskriget. Det betalades av privat prenumeration och ett federalt bidrag från Public Works Administration.

1940-1944: Universitetet fungerar under andra världskriget med full kapacitet efter att ha omvandlats till en marinskola inklusive en V-5 Navy Flight Preparatory School, ett Civil Aeronautics Administration-War Training Service-program och ett V-12 Navy College Training Program.

1947: Med mer än 4500 studenter har inskrivningen ballongat, och det finns fler veteraner i South Carolina än studenter före kriget. Veterananmälan nådde en topp efter kriget på 2 743.

Mitten av 1950-talet: En andra våg av veterananmälan börjar efter Koreakriget.

1972: Universitetets baserade Fort Jackson-program börjar.

2012: Studentveteranförbundet formulär.

2014: South Carolina tjänar den första av många Military Friendly School -beteckningar av Victory Media Inc.

2016: Veterans Alumni Council bildar.

2018: Tretton av en originalgrupp med 28 markörer som hedrar universitetsstudenter och alumner som dog under första världskriget och den mexikanska gränsdiskussionen flyttas till den främre gräsmattan i War Memorial Building. Ytterligare markörer kommer att reproduceras och installeras senare.

2019: University of South Carolina School of Law inrättar Veterans Law Clinic.


Muhlenberg College andra världskriget Navy V-12 och V-5 Collection: About the Collection

Den 1 juli 1943 genomfördes V-12 Navy College Training Program på högskolor runt om i USA. Utformat för att komplettera officerarnas led i U.S. Navy och Marine Corps med högskoleutbildade män, erbjöd detta program ömsesidig nytta för högskolor och universitet vars studentkårer hade dramatiskt tunnats av militärtjänst. I slutet av kriget hade 131 högskolor och universitet deltagit.

V-12 var ett accelererat program: högskolor skulle arbeta i tre fyra månaders terminer varje år, så att studenterna kunde slutföra en examen på två år. När de väl hade fått sina examina skulle marinmännen rapportera till Midshipman & rsquos School, och efter fyra månaders ytterligare utbildning skulle de beställas som fänriker i U.S. Navy Reserve. Marinkandidater skulle fortsätta till startlägret och Officer & rsquos Candidate School, varefter de skulle beställas som andra löjtnanter.

Muhlenberg & rsquos första kohort av sjömän och marinister anlände den 1 juli och omfattade 260 & ldquobluejackets & rdquo och 200 marinesoldater. Antalet civila studenter under de två åren av marinprogrammen varierade mellan 110 och 150 varje termin.

& ldquo Vid solnedgången lördagen den 3 juli hade varje medlem av enheten tagit sin fysiska undersökning, sitt simningstest, hans styrketest, hade inokulerats och hade registrerats för sitt akademiska schema. Som ett resultat började klasserna regelbundet klockan 0800 på morgonen måndagen den 5 juli, och Muhlenberg var det enda V-12 College i landet som gjorde detta rekord. & Rdquo

-- Naval History of the Navy V-12 Unit: Muhlenberg College

Samlingen består av fotografier, klasslistor, kursscheman, reklambroschyrer och korrespondens avseende genomförandet av V-12 och V-5-programmen, som täcker perioden 1942-1946.


1908 vid Fort Myer, Virginia, flög en demonstration av ett tidigt "tyngre än luft" -fartyg av ett par uppfinnare vid namn Orville och Wilbur Wright. Två marinofficerare som observerade demonstrationen inspirerades att driva på att flottan skulle skaffa egna flygplan. I maj 1911 köpte flottan sitt första flygplan. Från 1911 till 1914 fick marinen gratis flyglektioner från flygpionjären Glenn Curtiss på North Island, San Diego, Kalifornien.

År 1911 började flottan utbilda sina första piloter vid det nystartade Aviation Camp i Annapolis, Maryland. År 1914 öppnade flottan Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, kallad "Annapolis of the air", för att utbilda sina första marinflygare. Kandidaterna måste ha tjänat minst två års sjötjänst och utbildning varade i 12 månader. År 1917 blev marinens program en del av Flying Officer Training Program. Efterfrågan på piloter översteg dock fortfarande utbudet. Marinen organiserade en obefinanserad marinmilits 1915 för att uppmuntra bildandet av tio statligt drivna milisenheter för flygentusiaster. De Sjöanslagslagen den 29 augusti 1916 inkluderade medel för både en Naval Flying Corps (NFC) och en Naval Reserve Flying Corps. Studenter vid flera Ivy League -högskolor organiserade flygande enheter och började pilotutbildning på egen bekostnad. NFC samlade 42 marinofficerer, sex United States Marine Corps -officerare och 239 värvade män när USA förklarade krig den 6 april 1917. Dessa män rekryterade och organiserade kvalificerade medlemmar från de olika statliga marinmiliterna och högskoleflygförband till marinreservatet Flygande kår. [1]

För att möta efterfrågan på flygare skapade marinen ett kadettprogram som liknar Flight Officer -programmet som används av armén.

Naval Aviation Cadet Act (1935) Redigera

Den 15 april 1935 godkände kongressen Naval Aviation Cadet Act. Detta inrättade programmet för frivillig marinreservklass V-5 Naval Aviation Cadet (NavCad) för att skicka civila och värvade kandidater att utbilda sig till flygkadetter. Kandidaterna måste vara mellan 19 och 25 år, ha en associerad examen eller minst två års högskola och måste slutföra en kandidatexamen inom sex år efter examen för att behålla sin uppdrag. Utbildningen varade i 18 månader och kandidaterna var tvungna att gå med på att inte gifta sig under utbildningen och att tjäna i minst ytterligare tre års aktiv tjänst. [2]

Civila kandidater som hade tagit examen eller hoppade av högskolan klassificerades som volontärreservklass V-1 och hade rang som vanlig sjöman i den organiserade reserven. Kandidater som ännu inte hade slutfört en fyraårig examen hade en viss tidsgräns efter utbildning för att slutföra den. De som inte gjorde det, tappade sin rang och fick en överföring till volontärreservklass V-6. Kandidater som anmälde sig som frivilliga medan de fortfarande var på college var inskrivna i ackrediterade högskoleprogrammet och klassificerades som volontärreservklass V-1 (AVS).

Kandidater som inte redan var i flottan utvärderades och bearbetades vid en av 13 marinreservbaser i landet, var och en representerade ett av de kvalificerade marindistrikten. De bestod av 1: a och 3: e till 13: e marindistrikten (som representerar de 48 delstaterna i kontinentala USA) och det 14: e marindistriktet (som består av Amerikas Stillahavsområden och har sitt huvudkontor i Pearl Harbor, Hawaii).

Kandidater som valdes gick vidare till Naval Flight Preparatory School. Detta var en kurs i fysisk träning (för att få kadetterna i form och rensa bort de olämpliga), militära färdigheter (marschering, stå i formation och utföra vapenhandboken) och marin tull och etikett (som en sjöofficer betraktades som en gentleman). Pre-flight school var en repetitionskurs i matematik och fysik med praktiska tillämpningar av dessa färdigheter i flygning. Detta följdes av en kort preliminär flygträningsmodul där kadetterna gjorde 10 timmar i en simulator följt av en timmes testflygning med en instruktör. De som passerade fick V-5 flygmärken (guldmetallflygare vingar med V-5 märket i mitten). De skickades vidare till primär och grundläggande flygträning vid NAS Pensacola och avancerad flygträning på en annan marinflygstation.

Utexaminerade blev sjöflygare med rang av luftfartskadett, som ansågs vara högst till högsta underofficer men under rang som befälhavare. Som medlemmar i volontärreserven fick de samma lön som en vanlig sjöman (75 dollar i månaden under utbildning eller tjänstgöring i land, 125 dollar i månaden när de är aktiva sjötjänster och 30 dollar rörabidrag). Efter tre års aktiv tjänst granskades de och kunde befordras till löjtnant (juniorklass) i marinreserven och få en bonus på 1 500 dollar.

Kadetter som tvättade sig ur V-5-programmet tilldelades volontärreservklass V-6 med rang som vanlig sjöman. [3] Detta var en innehavskategori som gjorde det möjligt för flottan att utvärdera kandidaten för antingen omplacering till en annan del av volontärreserven eller omplacering till de allmänna servicegrenarna i marin- eller marinreserven. De var undantagna från att utarbetas av armén under krigstid men betraktades som reservister i flottan och kunde kallas till aktiv tjänst när som helst.

Naval Aviation Reserve Act (1939) Redigera

På grund av dålig lön och långsam marknadsföring lämnade många marinflygkadetter tjänsten för att arbeta för den växande kommersiella luftfarts- och flygindustrin. Den 11 april 1939 antog kongressen Naval Aviation Reserve Act, som utökade parametrarna för den tidigare Aviation Cadet Act. Träningen varade i 12 månader. Utexaminerade fick uppdrag i marinreservatet som fänrik eller Marine Corps Reserve som 2: a löjtnant och tjänstgjorde ytterligare sju år på aktiv tjänst.

Uniformer och insignier Redigera

Under grund- och grundskolan var deras pliktuniformer från 1935 till 1943 gröna överskott av trötthetsuniformer från Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Marinflygplanskadetter bar samma kläduniformer som sjöofficerare när de slutförde primärstudien.

Kadetter hade en annan insignia än arméflygkadetter: en gul sköld med en blå chef med ordet "marin" i gula bokstäver, ett par marinflygervingar kantade och dekorerade i blått över mitten och bokstäverna "V- 5 "i blått i basen. Insignierna var i emaljerat sterlingsilver för slitage på bröstfickan på uniformskläderjackor och tygplåster för användning på uniformer. Utexaminerade fick guld-metall marinflygare vingar snarare än silver-metall vingar tilldelas armén flygare.

1940–1945 Redigera

Under andra världskriget började USN: s pilotutbildning att öka. Den hade samma etapper som arméns luftfartsprogram (före flygning, primär, grundläggande och avancerad), förutom att grundflyg lade till ett landningsskede för flygplan och torpedo- eller dykbombare.

År 1940 modifierades den för att mer likna marinreservatets V-7-program. Kandidaterna fick gå på två 4-månaders terminer (eller 10-veckors "kvartal") på college innan de deltog i pre-flight. Pre-flight delades in i flygförberedande skola, pre-Midshipman School och Midshipman School. Flight Preparatory School var ett fyra veckors "startläger" som undervisade i disciplin och övning, etikett och protokoll (som en officer förväntades vara en gentleman), och etik (som en officer förväntades vara hedrande) blev kandidater till sjömän andra klass . Pre-Midshipman School var fyra månaders accelererade akademiska kurser i vetenskap, matematik och fysik för de kandidater mellan 17 och 20 år som inte hade utbildningskraven för att gå Midshipman School-studenter blev midshipmen. Midshipman School (smeknamnet "Pre-Ensign") var tre månaders sjömansskap (simning och båthantering), navigering, ammunition, telegrafi, teknik, ledarskap och marinhistoriska akademiker togs i uppdrag som fänriker i US Naval Reserve. De som tvättade ut placerades i den allmänna V-6-poolen som sjömän andra klass i marinreservatet.

I början av 1943 inrättades flygförberedande skolor vid 17 högskolor och universitet. [4] [5]

I juli 1943 slogs V-5 och V-7-program samman till det nya V-12-programmet. V-5-elever omklassificerades till V-12A (med A står för luftfart). Kandidaterna fick gå fyra fyra månaders terminer (eller 10-veckors "kvartal") på college innan de gick Pre-Flight eller kunde välja att överföra till NROTC. V-12-programmet skiljde sig genom att det var inriktat på högskoleutbildning och det eliminerade stadierna för marinförberedande skola och krigsträningstjänster. [6] [7]

Primary Flight School var på NAS Pensacola och den undervisade i grundläggande flygning och landning. Den använde NAF N3N- eller Stearman N2S Primary -tränare, kallade "Yellow Perils" från deras ljusgula färgschema (och studentpiloternas oerfarenhet). Grundflygskolan var uppdelad i två delar: del ett undervisade i instrumentflygning och nattflygning och del två undervisade i formationsflygning och gunnery en ytterligare del tre-etapp för enmotoriga flygplanspiloter lärde bärarlandning. De använde den nordamerikanska SNJ Basic -tränaren. Advanced Flight Training kvalificerade piloten på antingen enmotorig fighter, dykbombare eller torpedobombare eller en flermotorig transport, patrullplan eller bombplanskandidater klassades som marinflygare och fick guld Naval Aviator-vingar. Varje examen hade cirka 600 total flygtimmar, med cirka 200 flygtimmar på frontlinje Navy-flygplan. Piloter som tvättade ut tilldelades som vanliga fänriker.

Anmälda Naval Aviation -kadetter betalades $ 50 / månad för den första utbildningsmånaden (som lärling i sjömann i "Boot Camp") och $ 75 / månad för den andra till åttonde månaden (som sjömän andra klass eller midshipman som deltar i utbildning). Studenter för Naval Aviation (NavCad Ensigns eller tjänstemän i Flight School) fick 245 USD / månad (samma lön som en fänrik deltog i utbildning).

Bara 1942 tog programmet 10 869 flygare, nästan dubbelt så många som hade genomfört programmet under de senaste 8 åren. År 1943 fanns det 20 842 akademiker 1944, 21 067 och 1945 8 880. Under perioden 1942 till 1945 producerade den amerikanska flottan 61 658 piloter - mer än 2,5 gånger antalet piloter som den kejserliga japanska flottan. [8] [ misslyckad verifiering ]

1946–1950 Redigera

Enligt Holloway-planen ersattes NavCad-programmet med det sjuåriga programmet Naval Aviation College (NACP). Kandidater skulle gå på college i två år som sjömän utan betyg. Därefter gick de till flygutbildning som midshipman och tjänstgjorde på aktiv flygtjänst i totalt tre år. Efter deras första två år i rang som midshipmen skulle de befordras till fänrik. De skulle sedan få tilldelad stateide att avsluta sin högskoleutbildning under de sista två åren så att de kunde behålla sin provision.

1950–1955 Redigera

NavCad -programmet återställdes 1950 och fanns fram till 1968. Det startades senare om från 1986 till 1991.

1955–1968 Redigera

Marinprogrammet separerade 1955 och bildade Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) vid NAS Pensacola. Alla kandidater för luftfartsbefäl (AOC) var 4 -åriga högskole- eller universitetsexaminerade instruerade av marinpersonal och utbildade av Marine Corps Drill Instructors.

NavCads fortsatte att integreras i AOCS. Den huvudsakliga skillnaden var att AOC, med sina kandidatexamen, redan vid examen beställdes som fänriker i marinreservatet. De deltog i flygskolan som beställda officerare i nivå med sina USNA, NROTC, Marine Corps OCS och PLC, USCGA och Coast Guard OCS klasskamrater. Däremot deltog NavCads, som hade en högskola, men vanligtvis saknade en kandidatexamen, hela sitt flygskoleprogram som uppdragskandidater. De fick inte sina uppdrag som fänriker förrän de avslutade flygträning och fick sina vingar som sjöflygare. Dessa tidigare NavCads, beställda officerare utan kandidatexamen, skulle slutföra sin första flottans skvadronresa. De skulle sedan skickas till Naval Postgraduate School eller ett civilt högskola eller universitet som fänriker på sitt första landstjänstuppdrag för att slutföra sin kandidatexamen. AOCS slutade med att ta NavCad -civila och värvade kandidater 1966 och slutade därmed NavCad -programmet för en tid.

Enmotoriga piloter utbildade på T-28 Trojan. [9] Pilotbärarlandningsträning utfördes på USS Antietam [10] från 1957 till 1962 och USS Lexington från 1962 till 1991. På NAS Memphis övergick de till T2V Sjöstjärna (1957-1970-talet) eller T2 Hästkastanj (1959–2004) jettränare. [11]

1968–1986 Redigera

AOCS förblev i drift med både den traditionella AOCS-pipeline för 4-åriga college och universitet och akademiker, och Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate (AVROC) pipeline som vanligtvis registrerade college- och universitetsstudenter medan de var college sophomores eller juniorer. AVROC -studenter deltog sedan i första halvan av AOCS mellan deras junior- och seniorår, och återvände till den andra halvan av programmet efter deras examen och uppnådde en BA- eller BS -examen. Av denna anledning grupperades AVROC -klasser under sommar- och höstmånaderna, vanligtvis mellan två traditionella AOCS -klasser.

Under denna period fortsatte AOCS att producera blivande sjöflygare, sjöflygofficerare (känd som Naval Aviation Observers före 1966) och en mindre kohort av icke-flygande flygunderrättelseofficerare och tjänstgöringsofficer för flygunderhåll. Längden på AOCS-programmet förkortades med några veckor 1976 med eliminering av förberedande utbildning i T-34B Mentor flygplan för Student Naval Aviators i den tidigare Training Squadron ONE (VT-1) vid det tidigare NAS Saufley Field och en liknande längd före idrifttagningsprogram på Training Squadron TEN (VT-10) för Student Naval Flight Officers på NAS Pensacola / Sherman Field .

AOCS -programmet var alla manliga fram till 1976 då de första kvinnliga AOC: erna togs in i programmet.

1986–1993 Redigera

NavCad öppnades tillfälligt igen i mars 1986 för att möta kraven från den expanderande marinen i Reagans presidentadministration och integrerades tillbaka i programmet Aviation Officer Candidate School. Kandidaterna måste antingen ha en associerad examen eller 60 termins timmar av högskolestudier. Precis som sina föregångare decennier tidigare skulle dessa NavCads slutföra flygutbildning som kadetter, få sina uppdrag när de fick sina vingar som sjöflygare, och skulle senare få tid att gå college för att slutföra sin examen på sitt första landtjänst. NavCad -programmet stängdes av igen efter det kalla krigets slut, en motsvarande minskning av den amerikanska marinflygstyrkestrukturen och ett servicepersonalbeslut om att återgå till att begränsa marinflygträning till kommissionärer. De sista civila NavCad -sökande antogs 1992 och NavCad -programmet avbröts slutligen den 1 oktober 1993.

1994 – Nuvarande redigering

År 1994 flyttade Navy's Officer Candidate School (OCS) -programmet från Naval Education and Training Command (NETC) vid Naval Station Newport, Rhode Island, till NAS Pensacola och slogs samman med AOCS. I juli 2007 flyttade detta sammanslagna OCS -program tillbaka till Newport. Idag deltar nu blivande Naval Aviator, Naval Flight Officer, Naval Intelligence och Naval Aircraft Maintenance Duty officer -kandidater nu på den allmänna OCS på NETC Newport. Efter avslutat OCS -program fortsätter utexaminerade utsedda som Student Naval Aviators (SNA) och Student Naval Flight Officers (SNFO) till Naval Aviation Schools Command vid NAS Pensacola för Aviation Preflight Indoctrination med sina SNA- och SNFO -motsvarigheter som beställs via US Naval Academy, NROTC, Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Class-Air (PLC-Air), Marine Corps Officer Candidate Class, US Coast Guard Academy och Coast Guard OCS.

Detta var ett program för att utbilda värvade piloter i marinen för att flyga stora eller flermotoriga luftfartyg eller pilotluftskepp, eftersom pilotofficerare fick i uppdrag att flyga krigare och stridsflygplan/bombplan.

1916–1917 Redigera

Ett utbildningsprogram för värvade piloter påbörjades den 1 januari 1916 och bestod av sju småofficerare och två marinesergenter. En andra klass startades den 21 mars 1917, som bestod av nio småofficerare (varav en rullades över från föregående klass).

1917–1918 Redigera

När USA väl kom in i första världskriget avbröts all pilotutbildning vid Pensacola. Naval Aviator -kandidater skickades för att utbildas i Europa efter att ha passerat Ground School och det värvade flygerprogrammet avbröts. Två hundra Landsmen (100 Quartermaster (Aviation) Landsmen och 100 Machinist (Aviation) Landsmen) utbildades för att fungera som markbesättning.

För att utöka antalet tillgängliga piloter skickade US Navy 33 Quartermaster (Aviation) Petty Officers till pilotutbildningsskolor i Frankrike och Italien. Utexaminerade fick militära flygare vingar. Två småofficerare (Harold H. "Kiddy" Karr och Clarence Woods) fick både franska och italienska pilots vingar. Tretton blev befälsbefäl eller uppdragsofficer och tjugo blev kvar som underofficer. De värvade flygarna användes som färjeflyger. Ferry Pilots flög juryriggade skadade plan till bakre depåer för omfattande reparationer som inte kunde utföras på fältet. De skulle sedan flyga reparerade eller nya flygplan tillbaka till de främre flygplatserna längst fram.

1919–1940 Redigera

Efter kriget beslutade marinen att den trista uppgiften att flyga transportplan eller styrbilar skulle falla på värvade män. År 1921 var specialiteterna sjöflygplan (scoutflygplan med pontonlandningsredskap), skeppsplan (scoutflygplan utformat för att katapulteras från ett fartyg) och luftskepp (lättare än luftfartyg).

1941–1948 Redigera

Under andra världskriget producerade marinen, kustbevakningen och marinkåren Naval Aviation Pilots för att möta kraven från den expanderande Naval Aviation -styrkan.

Marinen producerade 2 208 NAP under kriget och utbildade? NAP mellan 1945 och 1948. För att möta kravet på Koreakriget skapades 5 NAPs 1950 innan programmet stängdes.

Kustbevakningen producerade 179 NAP under kriget och utbildade senare 37 NAP mellan 1945 och 1948.

Marinkåren producerade 480 NAP under kriget.

1949–1981 Redigera

Efter 1948 avslutades NAP -betyget officiellt. NAP: erna var dock fortfarande i tjänst, antingen återvände de till deras värvade ställning eller position eller fortsatte som piloter.

De senast värvade marinkorpsnavigeringen (Master Gunnery Sergeants Joseph A. Conroy, Leslie T. Ericson, Robert M. Lurie och Patrick J. O'Neil), gick i pension samtidigt den 1 februari 1973. Den sista marinkorpsnap (Chief Warrant Officer) 4 Henry "Bud" Wildfang) gick i pension den 31 maj 1978.

Den sista värvade Coast Guard NAP (Master Chief Petty Officer/ADCMAP John P. Greathouse) gick i pension 1979.

Den sista värvade Navy NAP (Master Chief Petty Officer/ACCM Robert K. "NAP" Jones) gick i pension den 31 januari 1981.

Känd som "Holloway Plan", efter dess skapare kontreadmiral James L. Holloway, Jr., Naval Aviation College Program (NACP) skapades av en kongressakt (Offentlig rätt 729) den 13 augusti 1946. Det var utformat för att möta den upplevda potentiella bristen i Naval Aviators när värvningarna av de för närvarande tjänstgörande veteranen före kriget och krigstidsflygare löpte ut.

The Naval Aviation College Program granted high school graduates between the ages of 17 and 24 a subsidized college education in a scientific or technical major for two years in exchange for enlistment as Apprentice Seaman (AS), USNR, and a commitment to serve in the navy for 5 years. Students received free tuition, fees and book costs and $50 per month for expenses. After completing pilot training within two years, they then had to serve on active duty for at least one year, for a total of three years. They then had to return to school to finish their remaining education within the remaining two years or lose their commission.

It also offered the remaining aviation cadets still in training and newly graduated Naval Aviators the chance to serve as full-time active duty pilots rather than be discharged or serve stateside and part-time in the Reserves. However, they would not receive the education benefits of the full aviation midshipmen, nor would they receive the starting rank of ensign like the aviation cadets. In January, 1947 the aviation cadet program was ended and only aviation midshipmen would be accepted for training.

The aviation midshipmen (dubbed "Holloway's Hooligans") had Regular Navy commissions rather than the Naval Reserve commissions granted the aviation cadets. However, they were not allowed to marry until they fulfilled their 3-year service commitment and could not be commissioned as ensigns until two years after their date of rank (the date they received their midshipman's warrant). They also had to live on meager pay ($132 a month $88 base pay plus $44 Flight Status pay) while having to pay for mess fees and uniforms.

Later, the midshipmen were informed that their two years spent in training and active service as a pilot didn't count towards seniority, longevity pay or retirement benefits. This was not rectified until an Act of Congress was passed in 1974. Even then it only affected the less than 100 officers still in service.

Training (1946–1950) Edit

After attending their first two years of school, the students attended around two years of pilot training. (Quick learners could qualify as Naval Aviators earlier than this and flew in fleet operational squadrons as aviation midshipmen). At the end of the two year appointment as aviation midshipmen, the newly designated Naval Aviators were commissioned as ensigns, USN.

First they attended a four-week Officer Candidate Training Course at NAS Pensacola. The students were drilled by navy petty officers. Graduates were promoted to aviation midshipmen fourth class and wore a khaki uniform with black dress shoes they had no collar insignia badge. They were not allowed to drink and had restrictions on leave.

Pre-flight training was a refresher in math and science coursework and taught military skills like transmitting and receiving Morse Code. The candidates were drilled by Marine sergeants and were placed under a stricter regimen of discipline. Graduates of pre-flight were promoted to midshipmen third class they wore a single gold fouled anchor badge on their right collar.

Primary Flight Training was at Whiting Field, where the midshipmen were taught basic flying. The wartime SNJ Texan (1935-1950s) primary trainer was used it was later gradually replaced by the T-28 Trojan (used from 1950 to the early 1980s). Graduates were promoted to Midshipmen Second Class, who had gold fouled anchor badges on each collar.

Basic Flight Training was split into two parts. Flying by instruments and night flying were taught at Corry Field and formation flying and gunnery were taught at Saufley Field. Field Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) was held at Barin Field. Carrier Qualification (CarQual) testing was first held aboard the USS Saipan (CVL-48) from September 1946 to April 1947 later it was held aboard the USS Wright (CVL-49) (1947 to 1952) or USS Cabot (CVL-28) (1948 to 1955). Graduates were promoted to Midshipmen First Class and got to wear gold fouled anchor badges with eagles perched on them on each collar. The student could now wear a Naval Aviator's green duty uniform and brown aviator's boots and restrictions on drinking and leaves were lifted.

Advanced Flight Training took place at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas. There the midshipmen were sorted into single-engine (fighters and fighter-bombers) and multiple-engine (transport, reconnaissance, and bomber) pilots. Although there were jet aircraft in service, Advanced training was on soon-to-be-obsolescent propeller driven aircraft like the F6F Hellcat (USS Saipan) and AD-4 Skyraider (USS Wright and USS Cabot).

Problems Edit

From 1948 to 1950 the program was subject to cost-cutting due to post-war budget restructuring that favored the Air Force over the Navy. This impaired training and discouraged retention of its students and graduates. Midshipmen were being offered a release from their service commitment or a place in the Naval Reserve rather than a Regular Navy commission.

From June to September, 1948 the number of students at Pensacola expanded to five training battalions, swamping the facilities. Graduates of Pre-Flight in November and December 1948 were assigned to the USS Wright (CVL-49) to do maintenance and guard duty until a slot opened up for them at Whiting Field to begin Basic. In June, 1949 students in Basic and Advanced Flight Training were sent on leave for a month because Pensacola and Corpus Christi had used up their monthly aviation gasoline allotment and there was no funding for more.

On May 19, 1950, the Navy announced that the program was ending and that aviators would be drawn from Annapolis and Navy ROTC or OCS programs. Less than 40 members of the latest graduating class of 450 midshipmen would be retained and the rest (including the midshipmen still in training) would be let go by the end of June. The dawn of the Korean War on June 25 saved the remainder but they were told they were only authorized until July 31 (later extended to a 12-month period). In the fall of 1950 they were told that they could remain on active duty "indefinitely" (i.e., until the end of hostilities), but pre-war limits on promotion and pay would still be in force.

Dismissed Midshipmen were given a deal. They would be given enough free tuition, fees and book costs for two years to finish their college education this deal would be revoked if they failed out. They also received a $100 cash stipend for expenses, twice what they received before.

Results Edit

Around 3,600 students entered the program an estimated 58% (around 2,100) of the aviation midshipmen graduated to become naval aviators. [12] The graduates went on to become extremely influential: fifteen became Admirals [13] and two (Neil Armstrong and Jim Lovell) became astronauts. [14]

Famous "Flying Midshipmen" Edit

In 1946, Richard C. "Jake" Jacobi, one of the many aviation cadets who transferred to the program, became the first aviation midshipman to complete flight training.

Aviation Midshipman Joe Louis Akagi became the first Japanese-American Naval Aviator. He served in the Korean War with squadron VF-194 ("Red Lightning"). He received the Distinguished Flying Cross in June 1954. [15] for his valorous actions on July 26, 1953, in which he bombed a railroad tunnel, severed three railroad bridges, cut rail lines in two places, and knocked out two anti-aircraft positions.

In October 1948, Aviation Midshipman Jesse L. Brown was commissioned as an ensign and became the first African-American Naval Aviator. He served during the Korean War with VF-32 ("Fighting Swordsmen") flying the F4U Corsair, dying in combat on December 4, 1950. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. [16] The frigate USS Jesse L. Brown was named in his honor.

In May 1949, Norman Gerhart became the last aviation midshipman to complete the regular flight training program under the Holloway Plan.

On April 8, 1950, Ensign Thomas Lee Burgess of Patrol Squadron 26 (VP-26, the "Tridents"), became the first aviation midshipman to die while on active service. Burgess' PB4Y-2 Privateer, based at NAS Port Lyautey, Morocco, was shot down over the western Baltic Sea in international waters by the Soviet Air Force. The Soviets claimed they thought it was a B-29 bomber, that it had violated Latvian airspace, and that it had fired on planes sent to intercept it. No crewmen were recovered. [1] [ permanent död länk ]

On August 16, 1950, Aviation Midshipman Neil Armstrong was qualified as a Naval Aviator he was commissioned as an ensign in June 1951. He served during the Korean War with Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51, the "Screaming Eagles"). He later became a NACA test pilot, a NASA astronaut, and was the first man to walk on the Moon on July 20, 1969.

Although he finished his education at United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Jim Lovell began as a midshipman cadet at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He flew F2H Banshee night fighters from 1954 to 1956 and qualified and taught transition flying in the McDonnell F3H Demon fighter in 1957. In 1958 he became a test pilot – later transitioning to being an astronaut. He was involved with Project Mercury and the Gemini and Apollo programs, was the command module pilot and navigator for the Apollo 8 mission and commanded the Apollo 13 mission. He was the first astronaut to travel in space four times and is one of only 24 men to orbit the moon. Afterwards he continued to serve in the US Navy, retiring at the rank of captain in 1973.

In 1982, Admiral George "Gus" Kinnear, the first Flying Midshipman to reach the rank of 4-star admiral, retired.

On August 1, 1984 Rear Admiral William A. Gureck, the last Regular Navy "Flying Midshipman", retired.

The Marine Corps developed programs to meet demand for pilots beginning in this time frame. Prior to this time, the Marine Corps simply relied on garnering its pilots from among Navy trainees. One hurdle was a three-year minimum service requirement after completing flight training, which caused hesitation among potential officer candidates. It was a five-year commitment because flight training was approximately two years.

In 1955, a special Platoon Leader's Course (PLC) variant called PLC (Aviation) was created. It was like PLC, but it sent officer candidates directly to the Navy's Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) rather than Basic School. Its advantage was that if the candidate changed his mind, he could still go on to Basic. Ett Aviation Officer Candidate Course (AOCC) followed in 1963 to train dedicated Marine pilot officer candidates that went straight to AOCS.

Marine Cadet Program (MarCad) Edit

Since this still did not meet the demand, the Marine Aviation Cadet (MarCad) program was created in July 1959 to take in enlisted Marines and civilians with at least two years of college. Many but not all candidates attended "Boot Camp" and the School of Infantry before entering flight training. Early in the program flight training was deferred because the Naval Air Training Command at Pensacola did not yet have the capacity to absorb a growing number of trainees. [17] In the early 1960s the MarCad program expanded to meet the needs in Vietnam, while not lowering the bar to qualify as a Naval Aviator. All Navy pilot trainees, whether Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, had to meet the same standards to become a Naval Aviator. Likewise, MarCads were eligible for the same training pipelines as all other trainees: jets, multi-engine, or helicopters. With helicopter requirement looming large for Vietnam, MarCads shifted from flying the T-28C after carrier qualification to multi-engine training in the SNB (C-45), in which they obtained an instrument rating. [18] With few multi-engine billets in the Marine Corps, many MarCads transitioned to helicopters at Ellyson Field, [19] flying the Sikorsky H-34 (used 1960–1968) [20] or Bell TH-57A Sea Rangers (used 1968–1989) [21] [http://www.helis.com/database/sqd/509/.

Graduates were designated Naval Aviators and commissioned 2nd Lieutenants in the Marine Corps Reserve. The MarCad program was closed to new applicants in 1967, the last trainee graduating in 1968. Most MarCads signed a contract to remain on active duty for three years after the completion of flight training in this time period. MarCads who did not complete flight training but had an active duty obligation remaining, would return to duty in the Marine Corps at a grade commensurate with their skills. Between 1959 and 1968 the program produced 1,296 Naval Aviators.

Famous MarCads Edit

In February 1961 Second Lieutenant Clyde O. Childress USMC became the first MarCad to be commissioned. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on July 18, 1966, for his valorous actions supporting Marine ground forces near Dong Ha, Vietnam during Operation Hastings. Childress retired in 1977 with the rank of Major.

On October 6, 1962, First Lieutenant Michael J. Tunney USMC not only became the first MarCad to die in combat, but did so in the first fatal Marine Corps helicopter crash in Vietnam. While serving with Marine Medium-Lift Helicopter Company HMM-163 ("Ridge Runners") in South Vietnam during Operation SHUFLY (Task Force 79.5), the UH-34D Seahorse helicopter Tunney was co-piloting crashed and burned due to mechanical failure. The badly-injured pilot, 1st Lieutenant William T. Sinnott USMC, was the only survivor. Sinnott had to be evacuated by helicopter through the thick jungle canopy. The body of door-gunner Sergeant Richard E. Hamilton USMC fell out during the crash and was found intact and otherwise unharmed. The burnt bodies of Flight Surgeon Lieutenant Gerald C. Griffin USN, Hospital Corpsman HM2 Gerald O. Norton USN, [22] and technicians Sergeant Jerald W. Pendell USMC and Lance Corporal Miguel A. Valentin USMC were recovered from the wreckage. The body of Crew Chief Corporal Thomas E. Anderson USMC was never found. [23]

On March 22, 1968, Second Lieutenant Larry D. "Moon" Mullins USMC was the last MarCad to be commissioned.

Brigadier-General Wayne T. Adams USMC (MarCad Class 14-62) was the highest-ranked MarCad, retiring with the rank of Brigadier-General in 1991. He was a fighter jet pilot (F8 Crusader) (), helicopter pilot (CH-46), and attack jet pilot (A-6 Intruder).


A Simple Twist of Fate Saved Paul Newman’s Life During his WWII Service

Paul Newman was born in 1925 in Cleveland, Ohio, the second son of Arthur and Theresa Newman, according to IMDb. His father, who was of Jewish descent, ran a sporting goods store.

His mother was a Christian Scientist from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and she had a love of the creative arts which she passed down to young Paul. He began acting in plays in elementary school and never really stopped.

Newman in his first film, The Silver Chalice (1954)

He’s best known for his acting career, and he played in about 60 films in the course of his 50 years in the business.

Despite his incredible body of work, Newman remained very humble about his accomplishments and always believed himself to be lucky to get to do what he did.

Those beliefs had their genesis in a time before he became a big Hollywood actor. They had their roots in the period when he served his country during World War II.

U.S. Navy portrait of Paul Newman

Newman enlisted in the Navy right after he completed high school, joining the V-12 program at Yale, with hopes of becoming a pilot. Unfortunately Newman was found to be color-blind, which made him ineligible to fly.

Instead, he was shipped off to basic training and ended up becoming a gunner and rear-seat radioman for torpedo bombers.

He was sent to Barber’s Point in 1944 where he was part of the operation of torpedo bomber squadrons meant to train replacement pilots for the war effort. After that, he was sent to an aircraft carrier, where he was a turret gunner for an Avenger torpedo bomber.

Gate at Naval Air Station Barber’s Point as it appeared in December 1958

According to Newman’s Own Foundation, one event occurred during his time in the navy that deeply affected his beliefs about humility and luck.

When his squadron was in Saipan, attached to USS Bunker Hill, the pilot of the plane Newman was assigned to picked up an ear infection. As a result, the plane was grounded and didn’t go when the rest of the squadron was deployed with the Bunker Hill.

USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) at sea in 1945

Several days after the deployment, the ship was hit by kamikazes and crippled. Around 400 of the crew died, the few survivors managed to keep the ship afloat and the badly damaged Bunker Hill was decommissioned in 1947. That one simple twist of fate – the pilot’s ear infection – meant the difference between his life and death. It was a fact he remained aware of his whole life. Newman certainly did see some combat during his time in the Pacific, though, and was decorated for it.

During his Navy years, he was awarded a Combat Action Ribbon and also Combat Aircrew Wings for his work as a gunner and radioman. His other honors included the American Area Campaign Medal, a Good Conduct Medal, and a World War II Victory Medal.

Take a closer look with this video:

After the Japanese surrender, he spent the last few months of his active duty service in Seattle, as part of a land-based support unit, and was discharged from the Navy in 1946.

Paul Newman on a water taxi in Venice in 1963 Photo by Lmattozz -CC BY-SA 4.0

He used the GI Bill to enroll in Kenyon College in Ohio and received BAs in both Drama and Economics. Later, he spent a year at the Yale School of Drama before heading to New York and studying at the Actor’s Studio.

The rest of his life is much better known – his prolific acting career, his love of, and involvement with, auto racing, his family life, and his “Newman’s Own” line of salad dressings and pasta sauce.

Newman And Woodward
American actor Paul Newman (1925 – 2008) with his wife, actress Joanne Woodward, circa 1963. (Photo by Fotos International/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

Of the latter, Newman’s Own has earned well over $100 million – more than he earned in his acting career – and he donated all of it to various charities.

In 2005, he also created the Newman’s Own Foundation, with the purpose of supporting military personnel, veterans, and their families.

Since 2010, the foundation and Newman’s Own, Inc. have donated over $18.6 million to help the men and women who serve.

The foundation has given grants to a wide range of nonprofits who offer services to Veterans and military personnel including education services, entrepreneurship, and other services as well.

It’s all part and parcel of Newman’s unfailing awareness both of his own blessings in life and the power of a little bit of luck in transforming lives.


Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII - History

Henry Curtis Herge (1907-2003) was the Commanding Officer of the Navy College Training Program at Wesleyan University, known as the V-12.

Materials include items specifically related to Wesleyan's V-12 program as well as writings, research, and published works related to naval wartime training, the Navy V-12 program, naval curricula information, and higher education during wartime in general.

Extent: 2.5 and 5 Language: Material in English

Bakgrund

Materials include items specifically related to Wesleyan's V-12 program as well as writings, research, and published works related to naval wartime training and higher education during wartime in general. The first series, Wesleyan Navy V-12 Program, includes correspondence belonging to Herge and other Wesleyan figures regarding V-12 at Wesleyan student publications and other student guides and programs articles about Wesleyan's V-12 program published in campus publications a report assessing Wesleyan's program and a list of people involved in the V-12 at Wesleyan. The second series, Research and Writings, includes writings by Herge as well as research reports and other data used in his writings. Most of the writings are undated but seem to date from the mid- to late-1940s and are mostly in a draft, typescript format. Topics of the writing and research are higher education during wartime and wartime training. The third series, Other Publications, consists of journals, pamphlets, and other published materials that belonged to Herge. The subjects include wartime naval training, the Navy V-12 program, naval curricula information, and higher education in general.

Series 1: Wesleyan Navy V-12 Program

Series 2: Research and Writings

Series 3: Other Publications

The following is an obituary note submitted to Wesleyan University following Herge's death in 2003.

Henry Curtis Herge, 97, who served as Dean of the Rutgers University Graduate School of Education in New Brunswick, New Jersey from 1953 to 1964, died March 8, 2003 of pneumonia. He lived in Fleet Landing, a retirement community in Atlantic Beach, Florida, but he had a home in Middletown, Connecticut from 1943 to 1945.

Dr. Herge began his long career in domestic and international education in 1928 as an English instructor, school principal, and school supervisor in public school systems on Long Island, New York. During World War II, he enlisted in the U.S. Navy and, subsequently, became the Commanding Officer of the Navy College Training Program at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, which graduated 6,000 Navy and Marine Corps officers between 1943 and 1945. Just after V-J Day, he became Associate Director of the American Council on Education in Washington, D.C. and in 1946, he became State Director of Higher Education and Teacher Certification in the Connecticut State Department of Education in Hartford, Connecticut.

In 1953, Dr. Herge accepted the invitation of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, to become Dean and professor of the Graduate School of Education, in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Among his other achievements, Dean Herge spearheaded the funding, design and construction of the building which today houses the Graduate School of Education. He left Rutgers in 1964 for a series of appointments with the Agency for International Development and the Organization of American States in Paraguay, Jamaica, Zambia, Malawi, and Italy, where he assisted in developing teacher training and school management curricula and programs. He returned to Rutgers as a professor in the Graduate School of Education and as the Associate Director of the Rutgers Center for International Studies. He retired in 1975.

Born in Brooklyn, New York, Dr. Herge was the recipient of three degrees at New York University, a Ph.D. at Yale University, and an honorary degree at Wesleyan University. He was the author of Wartime College Training Programs of the Armed Services (1948) The College Teacher (1966) and A Taut and Salty Ship, The V-12 at Wesleyan (1991) and was the author of numerous articles in professional journals. He also served as an adjunct professor of education at Hartford University and Fairfield University, in Connecticut, and at the University of Southern California.

Survivors include his wife of twenty-six years, Alice Wolfgram Herge, of Atlantic Beach, Florida two sons, J. Curtis Herge, of Potomac Falls, Virginia, and H. Curtis Herge, Jr., of Pittsford, New York six grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Dr. Herge's first wife, Josephine Breen Herge, died in 1975.

Acquisition information: Given by Henry Curtis Herge in 1988, 1990, and 1995. Physical location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult Special Collections & Archives staff. Rules or conventions: Finding aid was prepared using DACS

Related

Navy V-5 and V-12 Training Unit Records, Special Collections & Archives, Wesleyan University


College Life During World War II Based on Country's Military Needs

On December 8, 1941, James B. Conant, then President of the University, spoke before a large audience in Sanders Theatre. "The United States is now at war . . . . We are here tonight to testify that each one of us stands ready to do his part in insuring that a speedy and complete victory is ours. To this end I pledge all the resources of Harvard University," he said.

Few Civilian Students

The Government was not slow to accept Conant's offer. By the fall of 1942 over 3,000 Armed Forces personnel were already taking courses at the University. As the number of civilian students continued to decline, it became increasingly clear that a wartime Harvard education was going to differ markedly in its external trappings, if not in its scholastic content, from that offered in peacetime.

For those planning to study at the University as civilians, Provost Paul H. Buck made this difference quite explicit. The wartime educational philosophy of the University was enunciated when Buck addressed the incoming class of '46." . . . Obviously your first responsibility is to prepare yourself for usefulness in the war effort. College men need not be told again that they have no right to be in college unless they have planned their program in the light of participation in the war . . . . We firmly believe that every physically qualified man of college age should be trained for the Armed Services unless specifically assigned to other work by an appropriate federal agency." he stated.

Summer vacations had already gone the way of other peacetime pleasures. With regular instruction established on a year-round basis, a third 12-week summer term was added to the normal two-semester system.

Freshmen Dominate

The freshman class soon dominated undergraduate life. Most of the other students had succumbed to the draft. Squeezed into a few Houses they tried to grab what education they could before turning 18. While the Yard was given over to the military, Kirkland and Eliot Houses became the headquaters for a new Navy program, V-12. The Army took over control of Leverett and Winthrop Houses, filling them with a counterpart to V-12, ASTP. Adams, Lowell, and Dunster remained the only civilian sanctuaries, but the latter could not survive past June of 1944 when the Army Air Force took over.

V-12 and ASTP members, however, doubled as undergraduate students besides being in the military. They received their degrees and commisions at the same time, and were kept quite busy in the process. A typical day in Eliot House began at 0600 (6 a.m.) with a two mile run and calisthentics. By 0710 the future naval officers had swabbed the decks, cleaned themselves and their rooms, and stood inspection. Classes started at 0800, continuing through the morning. Physical drill followed dinner. Buglers sounded taps at 2315.

With such a schedule, life became just another almost forgotten peace-time amusement. As for college pranks, "the students were too damned frightened," according to Arthur Darby Nock, Frothingham Professor of the History of Religion and a resident of Eliot all through the war. "It was like a ship on shore. The boys probably knew that the least bit of jibbery pokery, and they were back in the ranks," he says.

Society Eats Horsemeat

In such an atmosphere student opinion came to a standstill, even among civilians. The CRIMSON was replaced by the twice weekly Service News, a paper which did not run an editorial until Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April, 1945. The Student Council also showed an amazing lack of energy. It could find little more than the quality of food to discuss. Nock recalls that "the college kitchens kept up their functions although one time at the Society of Fellows they fed us horsemeat."

But while the Dewey-Roosevelt presidential election passed by almost unnoticed, war events did stir up interest. When the Allies landed in Normandy on June 6, 1944, thoughts immediately turned toward victory. On the other hand, Nock remembers that the air was charged with "a quite astonishing gloom when the Bastogne Battle began."

Through it all, however, University life continued almost as if there were nothing abnormal happening. Uniforms became common-place and so did Radcliffe girls in Harvard lecture halls. Undergraduates who had never experienced the pre-war Harvard found nothing unusual about metal trays or double decker beds. While about 500 of the teaching staff took leaves of absence, 1600 stayed. These were assisted by professors who came out of retirement.

Although many liberal arts courses were dropped from the catalogue, the staples remained and were taught by the best men in their respective fields. Some academic changes were evident, of course. Science fields were stressed, and most of the labs became top secret war research centers. Many students received intensive training in languages definitely foreign from the normal Germanic and Romantic peace time studies. The Armed Services needed men proficient in Japanese, Chinese, and Russian. Harvard training helped supply these people.

Churchill Arrives

There were also other and more spectacular abnormalities. One day in the fall of '43 gunboats glided up the Charles River and took positions in the Harvard bend. Motorized police barred off Cambridge streets and thousands of uniformed figures appeared in the Yard. Ever smiling, ever cigar-smoking Winston Churchill was to receive a Doctor of Laws degree in a traditional ceremony at Sanders Theatre. Those who saw and heard the British Prime Minister speak cheered wildly for the man regarded as the greatest figure of the times. After he left in the afternoon both gunboats and police slipped quietly away.

Yale Dropped for B.C.

Meanwhile the summer contingent of the freshman class struggled with such courses as English A, History 1, and Government 1. An informal football team stumbled through an informal football season, meeting and tying Boston College instead of Yale in "The Game." When the summer term came to an6The class of '46 looked like many of Harvard's past classes as it sat down to register for the first time. Within a few short months, however, nearly all of its members were in uniform.</C

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Veteran Memorials

Since its foundation in 1905, thousands of service men and women have called Northwest Missouri State University "home," if only temporarily. Some enlisted after coming to Maryville as a student or employee, while others enrolled or worked for the University after serving their country. Starting in 1918, students, alumni, employees, and community members donated several memorials honoring United States service men and women.

In 1919 the Nodaway County Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution planted trees and raised money for brick pillars and plaques to display names of 46 soldiers who died in the First World War. In the 1970s, the pillars were removed during a street renovation project. They were later reinstalled and formally dedicated on November 10, 2006. The Memorial Plaza lies just west of B.D. Owens Library, on the corner of College Park Avenue and Memorial Drive.

The class of 1948 gifted Northwest with a memorial bronze bell in honor of all soldiers who fought and died during World War II, especially those fallen soldiers who attended Northwest or who once lived in northwest Missouri. The bronze bell has since heralded Northwest achievements and celebrations and mournfully chimed to honor the passing of students. The Bell of '48 is located near the Memorial Bell Tower and is in the direct line of sight of the Administration Building. 

"Roll of Honor" Administration Building, Third Floor

A large display cabinet on the Administration Building's third floor features a number of memorial plaques honoring service men and women from the First World War, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. During the First World War a service flag was displayed outside the Administration Building. Starting in July 1917, the student newspaper, The Green and White Courier, encouraged readers to submit names of any students involved in the war effort and published weekly additions to the "Roll of Honor." A star was added to the flag for each submitted name. After the war, a bronze memorial plaque was displayed in the Administration Building with the names of five students who lost their lives in the First World War.

The tradition of a Roll of Honor continued during World War II. Students and staff created a temporary memorial using an Administration Building bulletin board and encouraged anyone to submit additions. Names were added throughout the 1950s as veterans came to Northwest after the war. The current World War II Roll of Honor displays 1,094 names. The roll includes 35 names with gold stars. The gold star indicates the serviceman died in service.

Korean and Vietnam War veterans were also honored with plaques from student groups. The later wars influenced Northwest enrollment numbers as more veterans sought to further their education under the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, better known as the G.I. Räkningen. From 1945 to 1955, Northwest enrollment numbers tripled. By 1970, Northwest enrollment grew to 5,000 students.

Navy V-5/V-12 Combat Information Center, Bearcat Stadium Room 109

From 1943 to 1945, Northwest served as a Naval Shore Station for the U.S. Navy. The V-12 program trained deck officers and the V-5 program trained Navy pilots, the programs were administered by Naval officers and taught by Northwest faculty. The program changed the look of Northwest for two years. Residence halls converted to house navy personnel, Naval officers set up temporary offices in the library (now Wells Hall), and Navy recruits joined the Northwest football team. In October 2003, the Combat Information Center classroom was completed thanks to donations from a number of Northwest alumni, including Ned and Margie (Campbell) Bishop. The classroom is in remembrance of those who prepared for combat duty in the Navy at Northwest.

Centrally located on the Northwest campus, the open-air Memorial Bell Tower is an iconic structure that was completed in 1971 to memorialize students, faculty and others who had served the country, including the military. Constructed using pre-cast concrete, the Bell Tower stands 100 feet tall and measures 25 feet in diameter. It also features brass memorial plaques and an electronic carillon that plays at morning, noon and night. University President Robert Foster announced his plan to build the Bell Tower in 1965 and it was completed entirely with funds donated by University alumni and friends. In 2004, the Bell Tower underwent an extensive renovation that included structural repairs and improved handicapped accessibility.

Persian Gulf War Memorial

Donated by the Class of 1991, an outdoor memorial stone lies next to the sidewalk between the J.W. Jones Student Union and the Administration Building. In 1990-1991, two Northwest students in the ROTC program were called into active duty and others had family members called into service. Student organizations and community members held a number of events in support of troops involved in Operation Desert Storm, including a yellow ribbon ceremony at the Bell Tower. KDLX, the student radio station, was selected to send weekly, five-minute broadcasts covering local events to the Armed Forces Radio Network in Saudi Arabia.

For questions or inquiries about Northwest Missouri State University's veteran memorials, please contact the University Archives: 660.562.1974, [email protected]

Northwest Missouri State University
800 University Drive
Maryville, MO 64468 USA


Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII - History

The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps was established in 1926 to offer certain college students the necessary Naval Science courses required to qualify them for commissions in the Naval Reserve. NROTC Units were initially established at six universities. The initial program was highly successful, and during the years preceding World War II, it was expanded to include additional universities and colleges. During World War II, the U.S. Navy expanded from a manpower force of 100,000 officers and men in 1938 to over three and one-half million in 1945. The U.S. Navy became the world's leading sea power, and the requirement for a larger regular career officer corps became apparent. As a result of through study by distinguished naval officers, civilian educators, and members of congress, the mission of the NROTC was greatly increased in 1946 to encompass a new program, the Scholarship NROTC. This program, like the U.S. Naval Academy, leads to a commission in the Navy or Marine Corps. The NROTC program is offered at numerous leading universities and colleges throughout the country.

The NROTC Unit at the University of Kansas has a long and proud history, originating from two Navy educational programs developed and implemented in the early to mid-1940's. During World War II, the Navy had a need to provide technical education to many of its personnel. The first group in a series of machinist mates arrived on Mt. Oread on 1 July 1942. On July 1 1943, the Navy formally established both the V-5 Program and the V-12 Program on campus. The V-5 Program was designed to train enlisted personnel in specialized and technical areas such as electrician and machinist mate. The V-12 Program was designed to prepare large numbers of men for the Navy's officer Candidate Schools and to increase the war-depleted students bodies of many campuses. The V-5 Program remained on campus until August of 1944 and the V-12 Program continued until 1 November 1945.

The Department of the Navy's decision to approve the application request for a NROTC Unit at KU was probably the result of the University's reputation for one of the most successful V-5 and V-12 Programs in the country. A bronze commemorative award, engraved with the Secretary of the Navy's name and presented to the University for its commendable performance in training young men during W.W.II, is still on display in the NROTC Unit. Additionally, KU's nationally recognized Engineering Department, including studies in the relatively new field of nuclear energy, influenced the Navy's decision.

The initial letter requesting an NROTC Unit at the University of Kansas was originally signed and dated December 1940 by KU President Deane W. Malott. The application outlined the support to be provided by the Navy Department if the establishment of the Unit were to be approved. The first request was not acted upon, and a second letter, again requesting establishment of an NROTC Unit at KU, was signed by President Malott on 29 March 1945. Finally, on 1 May 1945, the continuing efforts of many Navy and University officials was rewarded when the University Chancellor was notified that KU had been selected as the new home for another NROTC Unit. After a period of transition during the Fall of 1945 and the Spring of 1946, the NROTC Unit became officially operational on 1 July 1946 under the recently approved "Holloway Plan". The five-year delay between the first and second letters was due to indecisiveness by Congress on whether to expand the Naval Academy or enlarge the NROTC program. Their decision to expand the NROTC program came in large measure as a result of Admiral James L. Holloway (Ret.), former Chief of Naval Personnel and "Father" of the Scholarship NROTC Program.


Titta på videon: II svetovna vojna II